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Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) continue to provide a substantial role in the black community and in higher education by providing a culture of excellence. Yet, their role in higher education is the center of many academic and political debates. Defining this role has been thwarted with questions of HBCUs relevance in society, in the African American community, and in higher education. The relevance of HBCUs is neither the dilemma nor the question for higher education and HBCUs. The conundrum for HBCUs is ensuring that they are equipped with the necessary tools to address global and economic 21st century challenges. The purpose of this article is to examine existing challenges that contribute to HBCUs struggles in the 21st century in sustaining their culture of excellence. This article highlights how HBCUs are able to address challenges of accreditation, funding, and HBCU’s leadership and management in the face of global and economic challenges.