The performance of gas turbine engines can be improved by increasing the inlet gas temperature. Turbine blades can be damaged by high gas temperature, unless additional cooling mechanisms are incorporated to maintain the blades below an acceptable temperature limit. Film cooling techniques are often used to cool the blades to avoid damages. The performance of film cooling depends on several parameters, however. In this paper past research on film cooling is reviewed and areas in need of further investigation are identified. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are then conducted on the widely-used single-hole film cooling arrangements in which coolant jets are injected into air flows inside a straight channel before issuing onto the blades. Cooling pipe-blade configurations and flow conditions are varied and the resulting flow hydrodynamics are examined. Counter rotating vortex pairs (CRVPs) formed in the flow strongly influence the film cooling performance. Small coolant inclination angles, exit holes enlargement in span wise direction, higher injected fluid density, and higher injectedambient fluid velocity ratios are all found to maintain the CRVPs away from each other and close to wall - both of which promote cooling. Pipe curvature can be used for enhancing cooling by exploiting the centrifugal force effect.
M. Akbar , "The Effects of Coolant Pipe Geometry and Flow Conditions on Turbine Blade Film Cooling", Journal of Thermal Engineering, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1196-1210, Jul. 2017, doi:10.18186/journal-of-thermal-engineering.314165