Adipose tissue is a significant producer of pro-inflammatory cytokines in obese and old individuals. However, there is no direct evidence of whether and how aged adipocytes enhance the production of pro-inflammatory markers. We aimed to investigate whether the aging adipocytes increase pro-inflammatory markers. Swiss mouse embryonic-tissue-derived 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained for 60 days in the conditioned medium or 35 days in the unconditioned medium. Additionally, 20-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard chow diet for 37 weeks until they were extremely aged, when ~75% of mice died because of aging. Accumulated lipids, pro-inflammatory markers, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway markers from differentiated adipocytes were analyzed. Pro-inflammatory markers and NF-κB pathway markers of epididymal white adipose tissues (EWATs) and adipocytes from EWATs were also analyzed. We found that the aging adipocytes chronologically accumulated lipids and increased pro-inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α); at the same time, NF-κB p50 markers were also increased while IκBα protein was decreased significantly in conditioned medium. Similar results were observed when differentiated adipocytes were maintained in the unconditioned medium and the adipocytes from EWATs of aged mice. We demonstrated that aging augmented chronic inflammation through the NF-κB signaling pathway in adipocytes and adipose tissue.
Ahmed, B.; Si, H. The Aging of Adipocytes Increases Expression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Chronologically. Metabolites 2021, 11, 292. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11050292