The consumption of non-dairy milk is on the rise due to health benefits. Although there is increasing inclination towards milk alternatives (MA), there is limited data on antibiotic resistant bacteria in these substitutes. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from MA. A total of 138 extracts from almonds (n = 63), cashew nuts (n = 36), and soybeans (n = 39) were analyzed for Enterobacteriaceae. The identification of the bacteria was based on biochemical and PCR methods. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined by using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique. Overall, 31% (43 of 138) of extracts were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Ten bacterial species were identified, of which Enterobacter cloacae (42.7%) and Enterobacter cancerogenus (35.4%) were the most predominant species (p < 0.05). Antibiotic resistance was exhibited to vancomycin (88.3%), novobiocin (83.8%), erythromycin (81.1%), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in tetracycline (59.5%), cefpodoxime (30.6%), and nalidixic acid (6.3%). There was no resistance displayed to kanamycin and imipenem. ERY-NOV-VAN-TET and ERY-NOV-CEP-VAN-TET were the most common resistant patterns displayed by Enterobacter cloacae. The findings of this study suggest that MAs, though considered healthy, may be a reservoir of multidrug resistant opportunist pathogens.
Mukuna, W.; Mafiz, A.I.; Pokharel, B.; Tobenna, A.; Kilonzo-Nthenge, A. Antibiotic Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Milk Alternatives. Foods 2021, 10, 3070. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123070