The differential effects of type of token in modifying children's problem behaviors

Dwight Bradley Steiner, Tennessee State University


The purpose of this study was to assess the differential effects of three different types of tokens on the frequency of bedtime, mealtime, and bedmaking behaviors. Forty subjects between the age of 5.0 and 6.11 years were involved in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups that received tokens, or were placed in the Control Group. Consideration was given to the age variable, and that no handicap or emotional impairment was evidenced by the subject prior to treatment. The frequency of behavior was measured over a one-week baseline period and a two-week treatment period. The results indicated that the subjects responded more significantly to a personalized type of token (Merit Cards), than to two other types of tokens (Token Chips and Printed Paper Point Slips). All three groups receiving tokens increased significantly more than the Control Group in frequency of behavior and change in frequency of behavior. The results are discussed in terms of the efficacy of personalized tokens in modifying young children's behaviors, training procedure, reinforcement schedule and reward selection.

Subject Area


Recommended Citation

Dwight Bradley Steiner, "The differential effects of type of token in modifying children's problem behaviors" (1989). ETD Collection for Tennessee State University. Paper AAI9017230.