The differential effects of success, failure, and feedback on depressed outpatients

Amin Azimi, Tennessee State University


The purpose of this study was to assess the differential effects of success, failure and feedback on depressed outpatients. Sixty outpatient subjects were involved in this study: they were randomly selected on the basis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III) criteria with a diagnosis of Affective Disorders. Bipolar Disorders were excluded as these individuals may be different in their cognitive responses. Digit Symbol (DS), Subtest of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was used as the performance test. Subjects received primary positive or negative feedback after completing the performance task. Affect was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, Hopelessness Scale, and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The results suggest that depressed subjects overestimated the impact of failure and negative feedback, and they utilized a low amount of success, and positive feedback. These results are discussed in terms of the cognitive model of depression, and implications for the treatment of depression and for future research are presented.

Subject Area

Educational psychology

Recommended Citation

Amin Azimi, "The differential effects of success, failure, and feedback on depressed outpatients" (1987). ETD Collection for Tennessee State University. Paper AAI8802628.