Father involvement and offspring subjective well-being in African Americans
The study addressed whether the biological father or social father contributes to the psychological well-being of their offspring as measured by the Ryff's six subscales of psychological well-being and three subscales of the father involvement scale. In addition, this study addressed the importance of the father residing in the home as opposed to outside of the home. The study had 180 (72 males and 108 females) participants. The measures included the three subscales of the Father Involvement Scale (Finley & Schwartz, 1998) and The Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being (Ryff, 1995). Results suggested that biological fathers who were involved in their offspring's daily lives and resided in the home had more influence on offspring well-being than fathers who resided outside of the home. Results suggested that biological fathers made a greater difference than social fathers with regard to psychological well-being.^
Charles R Williams,
"Father involvement and offspring subjective well-being in African Americans"
ETD Collection for Tennessee State University.