Effects of Triclosan Exposures on Expression of Interleukin-1beta and Interleukin-6
Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial compound widely used in personal hygiene products such as mouthwash and toothpaste; and has been found in human blood, breast milk, and urine. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 beta (IL-1β) are pro-inflammatory cytokines regulating cell growth, tissue repair, and immune function; increased levels of each have been associated with many diseases, including cancer. TCS at concentrations between 0.05-5 µM consistently increased the secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 from human immune cells within 24 h of exposure. This increase in secretion was not due simply to release of existing stores, as evidenced by monitoring both secreted and intracellular levels (cellular production) after 10 min, 30 min, 6 h, and 24 h of exposure to TCS. Production (secreted plus intracellular levels) of IL-1β and IL-6 was increased by exposure to one or more concentration of TCS at each length of exposure. TCS-induced stimulation of cytokine production was shown to be dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (p38 and ERK 1/2). It was also shown that these TCS-induced increases in IL-1β and IL6 production were accompanied by increased mRNA for IL-1β and IL6. These results verified that TCS increases immune cell production of IL-1β and IL-6. The ability of TCS to increase production indicates that rather than activating a self-limiting process of depleting cells of already existing stores of IL-1β or IL-6, TCS can stimulate a process that has the capacity to provide sustained production of these cytokines and thus may lead to chronic inflammation and its pathological consequences.
Wendy JoAnne Wilburn,
"Effects of Triclosan Exposures on Expression of Interleukin-1beta and Interleukin-6"
ETD Collection for Tennessee State University.