Measuring Self Efficacy, Motivation, and College Adjustment among African American Males in Higher Education

Li'thelya Young, Tennessee State University


The numbers of African American males and females entering higher education continue to soar. Research shows that African American women are the most educated group within the United States; however, compared to their European and Hispanic male counterparts, African American males report the lowest outcomes in higher education. Educational research has shown that although many African American males are entering college, many are not finishing. Although much research has been conducted regarding the education of African American males, their motivation, and aspirations, most of it has occurred at Predominantly White Institutions and community college settings. This research attempted to fill the gaps in the literature by measuring the concepts of self-efficacy and motivational attributes in relation to the college adjustment of undergraduate African American males. A criterion sample of 107 African American male participants attending Tennessee State University completed the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire Modified (SACQ-M). Quantitative results indicated that students with high levels of self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation introjected had a more positive adjustment to college; whereas, a motivated students had decreased levels of positive adjustment. When examining the magnitude and the direction of the relationship to negative college adjustment, a-motivation had the most influence followed by self-efficacy; those with higher self-efficacy levels experienced a more favorable adjustment to college while those who had lower levels experienced a more negative adjustment to college. Lastly, results indicated that college seniors had higher self-efficacy levels than first-year college students. Implications of these results and findings for higher education administrators, faculty, and future research are discussed.

Subject Area

Higher education|African American Studies|Educational psychology

Recommended Citation

Li'thelya Young, "Measuring Self Efficacy, Motivation, and College Adjustment among African American Males in Higher Education" (2020). ETD Collection for Tennessee State University. Paper AAI28002358.