An examination of parental care, control, and attachment styles

Chiquita McKinney, Tennessee State University


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the individual's perception of parental care and control and how the individual relates to others in close and romantic relationships. Participants were 208 university students (62 men, 146 women) who ranged in age 18 to 63 (M = 24); 62% were African American, 30.8% were Caucasian, 1.4% were Asian, 2.9% were Hispanic, and 2.9% were "other." Participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). A correlation between perceived parental care and secure attachment in adulthood indicated a significant moderate relationship. There was also a significant negative relationship between care and depression. Care and protection were inversely related. Perceived parental protection was not significantly related to secure or fearful adult attachment styles. However, perceived parental protection was significantly related to dismissive and preoccupied attachments styles. Depression and protection were also significantly related.

Subject Area

Behaviorial sciences|Social psychology|Developmental psychology

Recommended Citation

Chiquita McKinney, "An examination of parental care, control, and attachment styles" (2007). ETD Collection for Tennessee State University. Paper AAI1447773.