Factors Related to the Process of Qualifying Students as Section 504-Only in an Urban Public School District in Tennessee
The purpose of this ex post facto study was to provide a quantitative examination of the differences between grade-level span on the percentage of students with a physical or mental impairment, which substantially limits one or more major life activities (504-only) and whether demographic factors (gender, ethnicity, grade level span, Limited English Proficiency, students receiving special education IDEA) influenced that percentage. It also sought to examine differences between the percent of 504-only students based on the Title I (socioeconomics) status of their school and whether demographic factors influenced that percentage. Archival Civil Rights Data Collection and Title I data were collected and assessed for the 82,714 students enrolled in 152 schools in an urban school district in Tennessee. This study explored these research questions: (a) Is there a difference between grade level-span (elementary schools, middle schools, high schools, and others schools) on the percentage of 504-only students and did demographic factors influence that percentage? (b) Is there a difference between the percentage of 504-only students based on the Title I status of their school and did demographic factors influence that percentage? Analysis of the two research questions was accomplished by using both one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). A significance level of p < .05 was set beforehand. In exploring these questions, significant difference between the grade level span, F(3, 148) = 28.65, p < .001 were found. The demographic factors showed significant difference for grade level span, F(3, 143) =17.99, p < .001. There was a significant difference between Title I schools (high poverty) and their non-Title I counterparts (low poverty), F(1, 150) = 4.41, p < .05. Title I status, by demographic factors showed significant difference: Black, F(1, 145) = 11.88, p < .01; White, F(1, 145) = 12.20, p < .01; LEP, F(1, 145) = 21.92, p < .001; and IDEA, F(1, 145) = 8.46, p < .01. As a result of the findings of this research, recommendations for practice support the need for professional development to be provided for administrators, Section 504 Coordinators, and teachers.^
Shree W Suddeth,
"Factors Related to the Process of Qualifying Students as Section 504-Only in an Urban Public School District in Tennessee"
ETD Collection for Tennessee State University.