Effects of Cloves and Ginseng Extracts on The Viability of Tumor Cell Lines

Meshael F Al Safar, Tennessee State University


Cancer is a collection of numerous diseases characterized by uncontrollable growth and replication of infectious cells situated in healthy body parts. After the growth and replication, the cells are capable of spreading and infecting healthy parts of the body. They do so by creating an additional layer of abnormal cells. Just like other diseases, the interest of identifying plants suspected to possess medicinal properties as well as natural remedies for the development of cancer therapeutic drugs have grown over the years. It is in this light that the study was aimed at conducting a comprehensive research on cancer, especially its causes, different cell lines and their application particularly in this field, possible cancer therapies, and the probability of preventing cancer from originating. The project was done in two stages: the preparation stage and the experimental phase. First, various plant extracts and derived natural products were examined for their cancer therapeutic properties. Clove and ginseng were first obtained from Saudi Arabia because of their massive consumption by people in the Middle East. Cell culture examination was then conducted. In this analysis, human cell-based screening systems were utilized in the determining anti-proliferative activity and cytotoxicity. The cells were maintained in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10 % fetal calf serum, 0.01 mg/mL insulin, and one mM sodium pyruvate then grown in a 5% CO2 humidified incubator at 370 °C. The Trypan blue exclusion scrutiny was then conducted to determine the integrity of the cell membrane. Next, crude extraction of the organic substances contained in Clove and Ginseng were prepared then grounded separately with a mortar and pistil. Crude extraction was followed by purification of the crude extracts. It is worth noting that the crude extracts were also dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, frozen and stored at -20 °C. Additionally, an anti-carcinogen protocol growth assay was conducted at the beginning of the study to a growth analysis of different cell lines namely A549, HeLa, MCF7, BT-549, and PC3. After the preparation stage, the experimental procedure was as summarized below. In this juncture, 525 µl of the media was added into each of the 1.5 mL tube followed by the addition of Alamar Blue into each of the tubes. The blank was then made, and 190 µl of the blank was transferred in well #A1 and the step repeated three times with different samples. The process was also repeated but with cells added. The results from the project were as discussed in the following section. From the graphs, the highest percent growth of A549 after a 24-hour exposure to different Ginseng concentration was found to be 109.3, and it was at concentration 0.05 mg/ml. The lowest growth was at concentration 0.4 mg/ml. For BT-549, the maximum and minimum percent growth was noted at concentrations 0.006 mg/ml and 0.4 mg/ml respectively. The exposure of PC3 with various concentration of Ginseng resulted in a slightly different graph from the previous cases. Both MCF7 and HeLa had the highest percent growth of 87.98 and 55.15 at concentration 8.2 mg/ml after the exposure with various clove concentration within the same timeframe. From the lab, cloves extract was found to possess higher cancer treatment value than Ginseng. Additionally, the extract also demonstrated a better chance of providing A549 cancer treatment. On the other hand, Ginseng had a less significant effect on the growth and progression of various cancer cells. This extract had the least control over the growth of BT-549 cell line. All in all, clove demonstrated higher toxicity levels against various cancer cells such as A549, HeLa, and MCF7.

Subject Area

Biology|Cellular biology

Recommended Citation

Meshael F Al Safar, "Effects of Cloves and Ginseng Extracts on The Viability of Tumor Cell Lines" (2016). ETD Collection for Tennessee State University. Paper AAI10119070.