Natural plants "Ocimum (Basil) and Achillea" as Anticancer in Human Cell
ABSTRACT Majed A Alanazi. Natural plants “Ocimum (Basil) and Achillea” Extract as Anticancer agents in Human Cancer Cell (under the direction of Dr. E. Lewis Myles) Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell division as a result of mutations. Its cause lies in genetics, but the role of poor nutrition or exposure to harmful chemicals and radiations cannot be ignored. Some of the most common malignancies, playing havoc with millions of lives around the globe, include cancer of breast, prostate, colorectal tissues, cervix, lung, and skin. Natural products offer a relatively inexpensive, readily-available alternative (with fewer side effects) to the marketed, expensive treatment options like immune therapy, hormone therapy, radiation and chemotherapy. Extensive research into medicinal plants has revealed some anti-cancer potential in many traditionally used plants like Basil (Ocimum spp.; Family: Lamiaceae) and Achillea spp. (Family: Asteraceae). The chemical constituents and isolated compounds from these plants have shown pertinent properties, like antioxidant effects Antioxidants can be employed against tumorigenesis. Subsequently, the objective of current investigation was to explore the anticancer effects of Ocimum (Basil) and A. fragrantissima extracts in three human cancer cell lines, namely, A549 (lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line), PC-3 (prostate cancer cell line). HeLa (cervical cancer cell line). The hypothesis of investigation was: Secondary compounds from Achillea and basil have growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on these cell lines. Dried leaves of Ocimum (Basil) and A. fragrantissima were used for extracting crude organic compounds in the form of an extract. Trypan blue cell viability test and treatment with Alamar blue reagent were performed. Dimethoxy sulfoxide was the control for comparison of inhibition by these extract, while the anticancer chemical, tamoxifen, served as positive control in 24 hour-duration cell viability/cytotoxicity tests. A. fragrantissima extract at concentrations of 599, 299.5, and 149.8 mg/mL, significantly inhibited A549 and HeLa cell viability; while even lower concentrations of 74.9, 37.4, 18.7, and 9.4 mg/mL, significantly inhibited PC-3 cell viability. Basil extract at concentrations of 333, 166.5, and 83.3 mg/mL significantly inhibited A549 and PC-3 cell viability; while even lower concentrations of 41.6, 20.8, and 10.4 mg/mL significantly inhibited HeLa cell viability. Basil was least potent against PC-3, and most potent against HeLa; whereas, Achillea was most potent against PC-3 cell line. Results reveal that basil and Achillea extracts inhibit cancer cell growth at a wide range of achievable concentrations. So, this study supports our hypothesis that these extracts inhibit growth of Lung (A549), Cervical (HeLa) Prostate (PC-3) cell lines. These studies suggest that future studies are needed. We also believe that future research into synergistic effects of natural compounds may show even more significant differences.
"Natural plants "Ocimum (Basil) and Achillea" as Anticancer in Human Cell"
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