Document Type


Publication Date



We present a comprehensive analysis of the 0.3–5 μm transit spectrum for the inflated hot Jupiter HAT-P-41b. The planet was observed in transit with Hubble STIS and WFC3 as part of the Hubble Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanet Treasury (PanCET) program, and we combine those data with warm Spitzer transit observations. We extract transit depths from each of the data sets, presenting the STIS transit spectrum (0.29–0.93 μm) for the first time. We retrieve the transit spectrum both with a free-chemistry retrieval suite (AURA) and a complementary chemical equilibrium retrieval suite (PLATON) to constrain the atmospheric properties at the day–night terminator. Both methods provide an excellent fit to the observed spectrum. Both AURA and PLATON retrieve a metal-rich atmosphere for almost all model assumptions (most likely O/H ratio of ${\mathrm{log}}_{10}Z/{Z}_{\odot }={1.46}_{-0.68}^{+0.53}$ and ${\mathrm{log}}_{10}Z/{Z}_{\odot }={2.33}_{-0.25}^{+0.23}$, respectively); this is driven by a 4.9σ detection of H2O as well as evidence of gas absorption in the optical (>2.7σ detection) due to Na, AlO, and/or VO/TiO, though no individual species is strongly detected. Both retrievals determine the transit spectrum to be consistent with a clear atmosphere, with no evidence of haze or high-altitude clouds. Interior modeling constraints on the maximum atmospheric metallicity (${\mathrm{log}}_{10}Z/{Z}_{\odot }\lt 1.7$) favor the AURA results. The inferred elemental oxygen abundance suggests that HAT-P-41b has one of the most metal-rich atmospheres of any hot Jupiters known to date. Overall, the inferred high metallicity and high inflation make HAT-P-41b an interesting test case for planet formation theories.

Available for download on Saturday, January 01, 2022