HD 106315 and GJ 9827 are two bright, nearby stars that host multiple super-Earths and sub-Neptunes discovered by K2 that are well suited for atmospheric characterization. We refined the planets' ephemerides through Spitzer transits, enabling accurate transit prediction required for future atmospheric characterization through transmission spectroscopy. Through a multiyear high-cadence observing campaign with Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer and Magellan/Planet Finder Spectrograph, we improved the planets' mass measurements in anticipation of Hubble Space Telescope transmission spectroscopy. For GJ 9827, we modeled activity-induced radial velocity signals with a Gaussian process informed by the Calcium II H&K lines in order to more accurately model the effect of stellar noise on our data. We measured planet masses of Mb = 4.87 ± 0.37 M⊕, Mc = 1.92 ± 0.49 M⊕, and Md = 3.42 ± 0.62 M⊕. For HD 106315, we found that such activity radial velocity decorrelation was not effective due to the reduced presence of spots and speculate that this may extend to other hot stars as well (Teff > 6200 K). We measured planet masses of Mb = 10.5 ± 3.1 M⊕ and Mc = 12.0 ± 3.8 M⊕. We investigated all of the planets' compositions through comparison of their masses and radii to a range of interior models. GJ 9827 b and GJ 9827 c are both consistent with a 50/50 rock-iron composition, GJ 9827 d and HD 106315 b both require additional volatiles and are consistent with moderate amounts of water or hydrogen/helium, and HD 106315 c is consistent with a ∼10% hydrogen/helium envelope surrounding an Earth-like rock and iron core.
Molly R. Kosiarek et al 2021 AJ 161 47