Document Type


Publication Date



Triclosan (TCS) is widely used in personal hygiene products, such as mouthwash and toothpaste, and is found in human tissues. Interleukin (IL)-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and interferon gamma (IFNγ) are pro-inflammatory cytokines and inappropriately elevated levels of each have been associated with pathologies including rheumatoid arthritis and certain cancers. Here we examine effects of TCS on the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines from human immune cell preparations. TCS at concentrations between 0.05–5 μM consistently increased the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα within 24 h of exposure and the increases often maintained out to 6 days of exposure. TCS also induced increases in IFNγ secretion, however the increases were most consistent after 48 h of exposure rather than within 24 h. Additionally, a role for both p44/42 and p38 MAPK in TCS-stimulated increases in IL-1β was seen in cells from some donors.