Chronic inflammation is known to play a critical role in cancer development and progression. High salt is known to mediate several chronic inflammatory diseases including hypertension, myocardial infarction, neurological ischemic attack, autoimmune diseases and cancers. High salt level is shown to induce angiogenesis and immune-dysfunction, both of which play a direct role in cancer proliferation. Furthermore, salt has been suggested to enhance Warburg-like metabolic phenotype in cancer cells and at the same time also induce pro-tumor MΦ2-macrophage phenotype. Recent studies have identified several molecular targets such as tonicity specific transcript factor NFAT5/TonEBP, sodium ion channel γENaC, and vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, which are upregulated under high salt external environment. These molecular targets offer futuristic therapeutic application in precision medicine. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the salt mediated metabolic and immune dysfunctions playing a potential role in cancerous changes.
Amara S and Amara S: Inflammatory role of high salt level in tumor microenvironment (Review). Int J Oncol 50: 1477-1481, 2017