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Soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) are three important elements. The study of stoichiometric relationships of soil C, N, and P in tropical forests on Hainan Island, China could improve our understanding of nutrient cycling and provide valuable information for forest management. Soil samples were collected at five different depths from 0 to 100 cm at 100 sites among four different forest types on Hainan Island, and total C, N, and P concentrations were measured. Soil C and N concentrations and soil C:P and N:P ratios declined from the surface soil layer to the deeper soil layers and soil P and C:N ratio had relatively small variations among different depths, due to that soil C and N were mostly controlled by biological processes such as photosynthesis and N2-fixation, while P was more influenced by bedrock. Large spatial variations were found for soil C, N, P concentrations and their ratios. Soil C and N concentrations were significantly influenced by longitude and vegetation cover, while soil P concentration and C:P and N:P ratios were significantly controlled by latitude. This study produced a comprehensive data set of soil C, N, and P stoichiometry, and their variation patterns and controls in the tropical forests. The information generated here could help improve ecosystem models for better understanding of forest element stoichiometry, ecosystem productivity, and plant-environment relationships.