Orphan crops, which include many of the tropical fruit species used in the juice industry, lack genomic resources and breeding efforts. Typical of this dilemma is the lack of commercial cultivars of purple passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. edulis, and of information on the genetic resources of its substantial semiwild gene pool. In this study, we develop single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the species and show that the genetic diversity of this fruit crop has been reduced because of selection for cultivated genotypes compared to the semiwild landraces in its center of diversity. A specific objective of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity of cultivars, genebank accession, and landraces through genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and to conduct molecular evaluation of a broad collection for the species P. edulis from a source country, Colombia. We included control genotypes of yellow passion fruit, P. edulis f. flavicarpa. The goal was to evaluate differences between fruit types and compare landraces and genebank accessions from in situ accessions collected from farmers. In total, 3820 SNPs were identified as informative for this diversity study. However, the majority distinguished yellow and purple passion fruit, with 966 SNPs useful in purple passion fruits alone. In the population structure analysis, purple passion fruits were very distinct from the yellow ones. The results for purple passion fruits alone showed reduced diversity for the commercial cultivars while highlighting the higher diversity found among landraces from wild or semi-wild conditions. These landraces had higher heterozygosity, polymorphism, and overall genetic diversity. The implications for genetics and breeding as well as evolution and ecology of purple passion fruits based on the extant landrace diversity are discussed with consideration of manual or pollinator-assisted hybridization of this species.
Rodriguez Castillo, N.C.; Wu, X.; Chacón, M.I.; Melgarejo, L.M.; Blair, M.W. Genetic Diversity of Purple Passion Fruit, Passiflora edulis f. edulis, Based on Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Discovered through Genotyping by Sequencing. Diversity 2021, 13, 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13040144