The non-target impacts of two reduced risk insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram, were evaluated for two years in Oregon pear and California walnut orchards. Experiments were conducted in large replicated plots (approximately 0.25–0.4ha) to assess the impact of these two insecticides on natural enemies of secondary pests when applied against codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Cumulative insect days (CID) of secondary pests and natural enemies were calculated from leaf samples, plant volatile traps, beat trays or cardboard trunk bands. Ratios of natural enemies and prey were also calculated. Results from these field studies demonstrate that applications of chlorantraniliprole can reduce abundance of predatory Neuroptera and that spinetoram negatively impacts parasitic Hymenoptera. However, these trends did not always occur each year. As a percentage among all trials within a crop, there were more treatment differences for natural enemy/prey ratios (50 and 33% for pears and walnut plots, respectively) than for natural enemy CIDs (25 and 13% for pears and walnut plots, respectively). It is likely that unseasonably cool weather during the two years of this study impacted both pest and natural enemy abundance. The intrinsic value of large-plot field studies is discussed.
Peter W. Shearer, Kaushalya G. Amarasekare, Steven P. Castagnoli, Elizabeth H. Beers, Vincent P. Jones, Nicholas J. Mills, "Large-plot field studies to assess impacts of newer insecticides on non-target arthropods in Western U.S. orchards", Biological Control, Vol. 102, 2016, Pages 26-34, ISSN 1049 9644, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2016.05.004.