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Robusta coffee (C. canephora) covers 36% of world coffee production and has strategic relevance as a beverage that it is produced by thousands of small-scale producers around the world. Although mainly grown in Africa and Asia as opposed to Latin America, this situation is changing. Colombia is recognized as a producer of high-quality Arabica (C. arabica L.) coffee, however we argue that Robusta represents a great economic opportunity for small scale producers, for the industrialization of new products and for emerging coffee chains. Therefore, the objective of this review is to outline the agronomic value of Robusta coffee as a “new crop” in Colombia. As background we compare the better-known Arabica to the Robusta coffees from a Latin American perspective. Robusta shows differences in geographical distribution, genetics, originating species, physiology and phenology. Robusta and Arabica also differ in their chemistry, sensory attributes, industrial use, segments of market and price. Despite the marked differences between the two coffees, the popularity and consumption of Robusta has been on the increase due to the expansion of markets in emerging economies and in developed markers for home espresso preparation where it is used in high quality coffee blends. Robusta is currently replacing areas of other coffees due to hotter temperatures to which it is adapted. Although Robusta is still new to Colombia, this species has potential adaptation in lowland areas considered “non-traditional” for Colombian coffee cultivation and as a valuable component of agro-ecological production systems. Robusta is a novel crop option for certain regions that is needed for the future of coffee in Latin America and for growth of coffee production and consumption in Colombia.