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Understanding fitness level among various breeds is essential for sustainable meat goat production. Research on the relative fitness of Boer F1 does and straightbred base breed has been limited. Meat goat does of various genotypes (Boer, Kiko, Spanish, Boer × Kiko reciprocal F1 crosses, and Boer × Spanish reciprocal F1 crosses) were studied to evaluate breed effects on doe fitness traits and the expression of heterosis over 7 production years. The herd was semi-intensively managed under humid subtropical pasture. Doe age affected (P < 0.05) various traits. Boer × Kiko does were heavier (P < 0.05) than Boer does at fall breeding, but Boer × Spanish does did not differ (P > 0.05) from Boer does for breeding weight. The body weights of Boer × Spanish and Boer × Kiko crosses did not differ (P > 0.05) from the weights of their respective Kiko and Spanish base cohorts at breeding, kidding, or weaning. Boer does had lower (P < 0.05) kidding rate (KR) and weaning rate (WR) than the other breeds and crosses. Boer × Kiko and Kiko were similar for KR and WR. Boer × Spanish and Spanish were also similar for KR and WR. However, the combined group of Boer F1 does had lower (P < 0.01) KR and WR than the combined purebred biotype group of Kiko and Spanish does. Boer does weaned smaller (P < 0.05) litter sizes per doe exposed compared with Kiko, Spanish, Boer × Kiko, and Boer × Spanish does with the latter four doe breedtypes not differing from each other. The combined Boer F1 doe group weaned smaller (P < 0.05) litter sizes per doe exposed than the combined purebred group of Kiko and Spanish does. Boer × Kiko dams had higher (P < 0.05) fecal egg counts at parturition than Kiko dams. Significant heterosis was observed for reproductive traits within each of the 2-breed diallels. Boer F1 does exhibited reproductive output similar to or lower than Kiko and Spanish straightbred does and higher than Boer straightbred does.

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