Pigs are a major food source worldwide as well as major biomedical models for human physiology and therapeutics. A thorough understanding of porcine immunity is essential to prevent and treat infectious diseases, and develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. The use of pigs as biomedical models is dependent on the growing molecular and immune toolbox. This paper summarizes current knowledge of swine cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, identifying 289 pig proteins, characterizing knowledge of their gene structures and families. It identifies areas in the current swine genome build that need to be clarified. A broad-based literature and vendor search was conducted to identify defined sets of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies reacting with porcine cytokines, chemokines, growth factors along with availability of cloned recombinant proteins and assays for their quantitation. This process identified numerous reagents that are reportedly reactive with 170 pig cytokines, chemokines, growth factors: 118 have at least one commercial antibody reagent, 66 a cloned recombinant peptide, and 97 with quantitative assays. This affirms the great need to develop and characterize additional reagents. There are panels of reagents for numerous high priority targets that have been essential reagents for characterizing porcine immunity, disease and vaccine responses, and factors regulating development of innate immune responses, polarized macrophages and lymphoid cells including T regulatory cells. Yet there are many areas requiring investment of efforts to more effectively explore the pig immune system. The development of more reagents to understand the complex of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors will clearly advance these initiatives.
Harry D. Dawson, Yongming Sang, Joan K. Lunney, "Porcine cytokines, chemokines and growth factors: 2019 update", Research in Veterinary Science, Volume 131, 2020, Pages 266-300, ISSN 0034-5288, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.04.022.