Lysine is the second most limiting amino acid after methionine and is considered the most limiting amino acid for growth in poultry. Lysine requirement for broiler chickens has changed over the years. Leptin and adiponectin represent 2 adipokines that mediate metabolism by eliciting satiety effects whereas ghrelin peptide hormone influences appetite. We hypothesize that this affects growth performance of chicks. This study evaluates the effect of varying dietary lysine homeostasis on performance of broiler chickens through satiety- and appetite-mediating hormones. In 3 replications, 270 one-day-old chicks were reared for 8 wk feeding on diets comprising 0.85, 1.14, and 1.42% lysine during the starter period and 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25% lysine during the grower period. These concentrations of lysine represent 75% (low lysine), 100% (control), and 125% (high lysine) of National Research Council recommendation for broiler chickens. Feed and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. At 8 wk of age, liver, pancreas, brain, and hypothalamus tissues were collected from 18 birds randomly selected from each treatment, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80°C until use. Total RNA was extracted, and cDNA was synthesized for quantitative real-time PCR assays. Low lysine concentration caused slow growth and high mortality. There was significant upregulation of ghrelin in the hypothalamus and pancreas, and leptin and adiponectin in the hypothalamus and liver, and downregulation of ghrelin in the intestines. At low lysine concentrations, adiponectin was not expressed in both pancreas and intestines. High lysine concentration exhibited increased growth, upregulation of ghrelin in the liver, and downregulation of ghrelin in the intestines, and both adiponectin and leptin in the liver. The expression of ghrelin was negatively correlated with the expression of adiponectin and leptin (P < 0.05) in the liver, hypothalamus, and pancreas. Expression of leptin was positively correlated with adiponectin in the hypothalamus and liver (P < 0.05), exhibiting satiety effects when the concentrations of lysine were low.
Collins N. Khwatenge, Boniface M. Kimathi, Thyneice Taylor-Bowden, Samuel N. Nahashon, "Expression of lysine-mediated neuropeptide hormones controlling satiety and appetite in broiler chickens", Poultry Science, Volume 99, Issue 3, 2020, Pages 1409-1420, ISSN 0032-5791, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.10.053.