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The gene pool of Mesoamerican common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) includes genotypes in the small-to-medium-size seeded dry beans, as well as some snap beans from hotter environments adapted to the Southeastern United States. However, the warm and humid climate of the Southeastern United States is conducive to diseases such as Common Bacterial Blight (CBB) and Charcoal Rot (CR). The pathogens for these two diseases can survive long periods in infested soil or on seeds and are difficult to control through pesticides. Hence, field-level resistance would be the best management strategy for these diseases. The goals of this study were (1) to evaluate field-level resistance from the various commercial classes and subgroups represented in the Mesoamerican gene pool as sources for breeding beans for the region and (2) to evaluate genome-wide marker × trait associations (GWAS) using genetic markers for the genotypes. A total of 300 genotypes from the Mesoamerican Diversity Panel (MDP) were evaluated for CBB and CR in field experiments for three years. CBB resistance was also tested with a field isolate in controlled greenhouse conditions. The analysis of variance revealed the presence of variability in the MDP for the evaluated traits. We also identified adapted common bean genotypes that could be used directly in Southeastern production or that could be good parents in breeding programs for CBB and CR resistance. The GWAS detected 14 significant Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with CBB resistance distributed on five chromosomes, namely Pv02, Pv04, Pv08, Pv10, and Pv11, but no loci for resistance to CR. A total of 89 candidate genes were identified in close vicinity (±100 kb) to the significant CBB markers, some of which could be directly or indirectly involved in plant defense to diseases. These results provide a basis to further understand the complex inheritance of CBB resistance in Mesoamerican common beans and show that this biotic stress is unrelated to CR resistance, which was evident during a drought period. Genotypes with good yield potential for the Southeastern U.S. growing conditions were found with resistant to infection by the two diseases, as well as adaptation to the hot and humid conditions punctuated by droughts found in this region.