Document Type


Publication Date



Soybean (Glycine max (L.)) is the world’s most important seed legume, which contributes to 25% of global edible oil, and about two-thirds of the world’s protein concentrate for livestock feeding. One of the factors that limit soybean’s utilization as a major source of protein for humans is its characteristic soy flavor. This off-flavor can be attributed to the presence of various chemicals such as phenols, aldehydes, ketones, furans, alcohols, and amines. In addition, these flavor compounds interact with protein and cause the formation of new off-flavors. Hence, studying the chemical profile of soybean seeds is an important step in understanding how different chemical classes interact and contribute to the overall flavor profile of the crop. In our study, we utilized the HERCALES Fast Gas Chromatography (GC) electronic nose for identification and characterization of different volatile compounds in five high-yielding soybean varieties, and studied their association with off-flavors. With aroma profiling and chemical characterization, we aim to determine the quantity and quality of volatile compounds in these soybean varieties and understand their effect on the flavor profiles. The study could help to understand soybean flavor characteristics, which in turn could increase soybean use and enhance profitability.